Air All air is supplied to the equipment for combustion, cooling, ventilation, etc.
Primary Air Any air, controlled with respect to quantity and location, forced or induced, supplied to the cremation chamber for the purpose of promoting combustion of the combustible materials in the chamber.
Secondary Air Any air, controlled with respect to quantity and location, supplied through ports in the wall, roof of the secondary combustion chamber, for the purpose of completing combustion of the combustible materials in the gasses from the cremation chamber or to reduce operating temperatures within the cremator.
Afterburner Chamber within a cremator where unburned combustible materials from the primary chamber are conveyed to facilitate additional combustion. Sometimes referred to as a secondary burner.
Afterchamber Chamber where unburned combustible material from the primary chamber is completely burned.
Atomize To break into tiny bits, or into a fine liquid mist or spray.
Baffle Any refractory construction intended to change the direction of flow or velocity of the products of combustion.
Blower Provides excess air for combustion, maintains a negative draft through the interior chambers, and cools exhaust gases before they exit the stack.
BTU British thermal unit: the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one pound (1lb) of water one (1) degree Fahrenheit at or near maximum density.
Burner A device for the introduction of a flame by delivering fuel and its combustion air at desired velocities and turbulence to establish and maintain proper ignition and combustion of the fuel. Types of burners include Afterburner, Primary Burner and Secondary Burner.
Calcination The heating process of reducing the body, wrapping and/or the container to their basic elements in the form of cremated remains through combustion.
Chimney A vertical (stack) or horizontal (flue) passage for conducting products of combustion to the atmosphere.
Combustion A chemical reaction that results from mixing fuel and oxygen in the presence of an ignition source (heat, flame, spark, etc.) and releases light and heat.
Cremation The process of reducing the body to ash and bone fragments through flame, heat and vaporization.
Cremation Container The case/container in which the human body is delivered to the crematory and in which it is cremated. The container must conform to these guidelines, 1) Be composed of a suitable material, 2) Be rigid enough for handling ease, 3) Assures protection of the health, 4) Provides proper covering for the remains, and 5) Meets moral codes for respect and dignity.
Cremator The total mechanical unity for the creation process. A type IV incinerator designed for cremating human and animal remains.
Downpass Chambers or gas passage placed between two chambers to carry the products of combustion in a downward direction.
Draft The pressure difference between the cremator or any component part and the atmosphere which causes a continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the gas passages of the cremator to the atmosphere.
Forced Draft The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, blower, or ejector, which supplies the primary combustion air above atmospheric pressure.
Induced Draft The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, blower or ejector, which is located between the incinerator and the stack, or at the stack exit.
Natural Draft The pressure difference created by stack or chimney due to its height, and the temperature difference, Between the flue gases and the atmosphere.
Draft Controls Dampers, linkages used to regulate air flow.
Emissions Combustion products such as smoke, soot, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, etc.
EPA United States Environmental Protections Agency.
Expansion or Se ling Chamber Any chamber designed to reduce the velocity of the products of combustion to promote the selling of fly ash from the gas stream.
Flame Scanner Sensor which detects or monitors proper ignition bases on the presence of ultraviolet rays from the flames.
Flue A horizontal passage for conducting products of combustion into the atmosphere.
Flue Gas All gases which leave the cremator by way of the flue, including gaseous products of combustion, water vapor, excess air and nitrogen.
Fly Ash Suspended ash particles, charred paper, dust, soot, or other partially incinerated matter, carried in the products of combustion. (Most often referred to as particulate ma er or particulates)
Hearth A solid surface upon which the human remains are placed for the cremation process.
Cold Hearth Hearth on which drying or combustion results from the action of hot combustion gases passing only over the top surface of the hearth.
Hot Hearth Hearth on which drying or combustion results from action of hot combustion gases passing over both the top and bottom of the hearth.
Hearth Air Excess air injected along the sides of the primary combustion chamber to assist the combustion process and allow the primary chamber to cool following the cremation process. Hearth air in generally used during the second half of the cremation.
Mixing Chamber Chamber usually placed between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary combustion chamber where through mixing of the products of combustion is accomplished by turbulence by increased velocities of gases, checker work and/or turns indirection of the gas flow.
Opacity The degree to which a substance allows light to pass through.
Particulates Particulate Matter Small pieces of liquids or solids that include dust, fumes, smoke, mists or sprays, charred paper, soot or other partially incinerated matter.
Photo Cell Sensor that provides the presence of flame.
Pilot A smaller gas burner used to light the main burner.
Pollutants Chemical compounds (gaseous or particulate matter is combustion/flue gas that present human health environmental concerns.
Pollution Control system A system on some cremators that monitors the visibility (opacity) through flue gases as they enter the stack. The PCS detects the presence of smoke (possible pollutants) and is designed to allow the operator to correct the operating conditions.
Primary Combustion Chamber Chamber within a cremator where primary ignition and burning of the remains occurs.
Pulverize The process of reducing the size of cremated remains after cremation.
Refractory Special high temperature lining for the combustion chambers.
Secondary Combustion Chamber Chamber where unburned combustible material from the primary chamber are completely burned.
Selling or Expansion Chamber Any chamber designed to reduce the velocity of the products of combustion to promote the selling of fly ash from the gas stream.
Smoke Alarm A device in the stack which responds to the detection of smoke by se ng of an alarm and/or taking some type of corrective action.
Stack A vertical passage for conducting products of combustion to the atmosphere.
Source Test Test conducted by federal, state, or local agencies to measure pollutants released into the atmosphere in amounts that exceed regulatory requirements.
Throat Air Air introduced into the after-chamber for emission control, usually during the first half of the cremation.